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Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

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art_way
Whisky Charlie

Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par art_way le Ven 13 Fév 2009 - 8:26

Un avion s'écrase au nord de New York: 49 morts selon un bilan provisoire
WASHINGTON, 13 fév 2009 (AFP)
Un avion de ligne s'est écrasé sur une maison près de l'aéroport de
Buffalo, au nord de l'Etat de New York, faisant 49 morts (48 personnes
à bord et une au sol), ont annoncé jeudi soir un responsable et la
chaîne américaine d'information en continu CNN.

http://www.aerospacemedia.com/site/afp.php?Id=090213054604.ez11alry.xml

http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/02/13/322506/colgan-air-dash-8-q400-crashes-in-new-york-state.html


_________________
art_way

Invité
Invité

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Invité le Ven 13 Fév 2009 - 9:46

Bonjour,

Il s'agit d'un Bombardier Q400 de Colgan Air pour le compte de Continental Express, 48 personnes à bord et une victime au sol dans la ville de Clarence à environ 8 km du Buffalo Niagara International Airport (N.Y.)

http://www.vancouversun.com/news/dead+after+plane+crashes+Buffalo+house/1283946/story.html

BUFFALO, N.Y.— A plane carrying 48 people crashed into a house in a suburb of Buffalo, N.Y.
Thursday, killing everyone onboard, authorities said.

The Canadian-built Bombardier Q400 turboprop plane was on a flight from Newark, N.J., to Buffalo when it crashed into a house in Clarence Centre amid rain and sleet at about 10:20 p.m., officials said.

CNN reported that one person was killed in the house hit by the plane.

A spokeswoman for Foreign Affairs in Canada said the department was investigating whether there were any Canadians onboard the ill fated flight.

"Foreign Affairs is aware of the plane crash and we are working closely with local authorities and
ready to provide consular assistance as required to Canadians," said spokesperson Lisa Monette. "We continue to investigate."

The Continental Express flight, number 3407, operated by Colgan Air, crashed about 9 kilometres short of the Buffalo Niagara International Airport, according to the Federal Aviation Authority. There were 44 passengers onboard along with four crew members in the 74-seat plane.

Recording of conversations in the final minutes between the pilot and the control tower posted on the Internet reveal a routine landing moments before the plane seems to disappear.

The pilot continually updates the a tower operator on the descent. The pilot's final words are
"Colgan 3407 now approaching." The tower then asks another pilot nearby if they can see the plane. It's a negative. Tower then makes attempts to reach the plane, but receives no response.

"There was an aircraft over the marker and we're not talking to him," said a control operator.

"He was clear for the approach, he went over the tower, he didn't call the tower... we couldn't get a hold of him... he went down about five miles northwest over the airport," said a control tower operator, moments later.

Live television footage showed the house and the plane's wreckage engulfed in flames.

One person who heard the crash from about one kilometre away, said the crash sounded like an earthquake.

"It was almost like on TV where you hear this high pitched sound. It was like an earthquake. You could feel it," the witness, Keith Burtis, told MSNBC.

"I'm downwind from it and the smoke and smell is still pretty strong."

He said the accident site was a populated area on the edge of farmland. Twelve homes around the crash site were evacuated, CNN reported.

The Buffalo News reported there was little communication between the plane and the control tower before the crash, but crews had reported mechanical problems as it approached Buffalo.

"I was told by the tower the plane simply dropped off the radar screen," Niagra Frontier
Transportation Authority C. Dougals Hartmayer told the newspaper.

Bombardier announced earlier this month it planned to sell 15 Q400 planes to Colgan Air.

—With files from Reuters, Agence France-Presse

Beochien
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Beochien le Ven 13 Fév 2009 - 9:49

Meci Art Way ! Merci Xmad, on éditait ensemble !

Revisé Anet !

Nose down Dive, en final sur Buffalo / Niagara ! Dans une zone habitée, un mort et une maison détruite au sol !
Un Dash 400 presque neuf (Moins d'un an) un Feeder de Continental
5-6 miles de la piste !
Temps épouvantable, 45-50 knots de vent ! Pluie au sol
Fortes conditions de givrage reportées par d'autres vols
Disparu des écrans en une vingtaine de secondes, sans mayday !
Pas de blessés ni survivants, incendie spectaculaire.

C'est le résumé

TRIM2

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par TRIM2 le Ven 13 Fév 2009 - 10:05

Bonjour,
Une pensée pour les victimes.

Comme toujours dans ces cas, les déclarations sont 'floues';
Ce matin, CNN annonçait que le vent était faible.;
De plus, La presse locale a déclaré que le pilote avait signalé des ennuis juste avant.

L'appareil aurait dépassé l"aéroport et aurait eu son problème 5 miles après.

Il faut attendre les déclarations officielles.

TRIM2

Beochien
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Beochien le Ven 13 Fév 2009 - 11:02

Pompé de A.net !
---------------
What about both wind AND ice???

And low viability...reported sleet and rain mix around the time. And, for the record, down here in CT, we've seen easy gusts above 45KTS all day, and through most of the evening...I do agree, the METAR I have seen from BUF around the time of the incident is now here near the conditions we've seen all day here.
-----------------
Le METAR plus cool ??
KBUF 130554Z COR 32009KT 1SM R23/5000VP6000FT -SN BR BKN005 OVC010 00/M01 A2985 RMK AO2 WSHFT 0548 CIG 003V008 SLP116 P0001 60011 4/001 T00001006 10006 20000 53019

et ..........

Also lots of pilot reports about ice, including Cactus rather annoyedly saying that they've been in icing conditions for the last half hour. Surprised we're not hearing it on CNN.

Et de la Tour !
--------------------
Prior to the crash, the voice of a female pilot on Continental flight 3407 can be heard communicating with air traffic controllers, according to a recording of the Buffalo air traffic control’s radio messages shortly before the crash captured by the Web site www.liveatc.net. Neither the controller nor the pilot exchange any concerns that anything is out of the ordinary as the airplane
is asked to fly at 2,300 feet.

A minute later, the controller tries to contact the plane saying but hears no response. After a pause, he tries to contact the plane again.

Then the controller asks the pilot of a nearby Delta Air Lines plane to see if he can see the Continental flight.

“Delta 1998, look off your right side about 5 miles for a Dash 8 about 2,300 (feet). You see anything there?” he asks.

“Uh, negative,” the Delta pilot says
--------------------------
Si il y en a qui s'y retrouvent là dedans ??
http://www.liveatc.net./

Ces qq lignes courtoisie de A.net !

http://www.airliners.net/aviation-forums/general_aviation/read.main/4315587/1/#1

250 post à se cogner déjà !
Pour se faire une première opinion !

Les déclarations et les flight/Voice recorders c'est pour plus tard !

Béochien

TRIM2

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par TRIM2 le Ven 13 Fév 2009 - 11:54

Du calme, Beochien.

Contradictoires les premiers 'reports'.
Nous ne sommes pas dans un 'blog' ou on dit tout et l'inverse.

Attendons - peut-être longtemps-, les déclarations officielles.

Des sources, que je ne citerai pas - voir post initial d'art_way_ parlent de pb mécaniques signalés par le PNC..

Pas de vent à 40 knots..

Attendons.

TRIM2

Beochien
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Beochien le Ven 13 Fév 2009 - 12:17

Bien d'accord Trim !

Faudra attendre qu'ils ouvrent les boites !
Mais côté moteurs, qq doutes, ils auraient eu le temps de parler à la tour !

Mais je suis de mon côté un peu parano (je le reconnais) sur un sujet / Les conditions météo des Aéroports !

Les autorités maintiennent les aéroports ouverts, beaucoup trop prés des limites acceptables ! Et imposent pratiquement aux pilotes des "Exploits" dont les Pax n'ont pas vraiment envie ... J'ai connu, en direct de ma famille !

J'ai bien apprécié la récente décision des ADP, de fermer préventivement !
Ce que les Basques de Bilbao auraient dû faire aussi ! Voir la jolie figure montrée hier sur Avia!

Et j'ai bien connu, beaucoup trop de cas ... ou les pilotes, même dans le doute , pensent un peu trop aux finances de la cie avant de se dérouter ... ou à leur Ego versus les collègues ou leur carrière pour les mêmes raisons ! Fermer les Aéroports plus tôt serait une bonne mesure pour empêcher ce type de raisonnement :
Si le collégue avant moi s'est posé, j'y arriverai ausi ... etc, je ne serai pas le seul à renoncer etc ! C'est humain, et bien sûr aucun pilote ne l'admettra !
Voir les Images de Hambourg, Bilbao etc !!!

Béochien

TRIM2

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par TRIM2 le Ven 13 Fév 2009 - 12:44

Bien reçu, Bochien!

TRIM2

Beochien
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Beochien le Ven 13 Fév 2009 - 16:47

Bon résumé sur Flight Global !
Pour le Crash du Dash Q400 de Colgan / Continental !

On n'en sait ni plus, ni moins !
50 morts, il y aurait eu un employé de Colgan en plus dans l'avion !

http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/02/13/322513/audio-crashed-colgan-q400s-last-communications-with-buffalo-atc.html

dune4544

Dash Q400

Message par dune4544 le Ven 13 Fév 2009 - 20:11

[quote="Beochien"]Bon résumé sur Flight Global !
Pour le Crash du Dash Q400 de Colgan / Continental !

On n'en sait ni plus, ni moins !
50 morts, il y aurait eu un employé de Colgan en plus dans l'avion !

J'ai une pensée d'autant plus émue pour ces victimes qu'il y a quelques jours j'utilisais ce type d'appareil entre Salzburg et Vienne.

A l'exception de leurs trains d'atterrissage un peu capricieux (cf SAS) , ce sont de bons appareils "ecos" permettant de profiter au mieux des paysages.
Un petit gout d'aventure quand même quand ça souffle...

Beochien
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Beochien le Sam 14 Fév 2009 - 2:18

Premières indications des Boites d'enregistrement !
Sur mon AOL news, et en Français !! (bon les pieds et les mètres, même combat ... )
Ils ont fait vite les Américains!
Une présomption de givrage qui grandit !

http://actualite.aol.fr/usa-les-boites-noires-parlent-apres/article/20090213181035239165710

Les deux boîtes noires de l'avion qui s'est écrasé dans la nuit aux Etats-Unis, faisant 50 morts, ont commencé vendredi à dévoiler leur contenu, révélant une accumulation de glace sur les ailes peu avant l'atterrissage prévu à Buffalo (New York, nord-est).

L'accident qui s'est produit jeudi soir lorsqu'un Dash 8 Q400 du canadien Bombardier a pulvérisé une maison de Clarence Center, est l'un des plus meurtriers de l'histoire récente de l'aéronautique aux Etats-Unis.

L'appareil de Continental Airlines, affrété par Colgan Air, qui venait de l'aéroport new-yorkais de Newark, s'est écrasé vers 22H20 (03H20 GMT vendredi). L'avion s'est aussitôt transformé en boule de feu, cinq minutes avant son atterrissage prévu, tuant les 49 occupants de l'appareil et un habitant de la maison.

"Nous avons entendu un vrombissement sourd, quelque chose que je n'avais jamais entendu de ma vie", a déclaré Jamie Lynn Trujillo, dont la maison jouxte celle qui a été pulvérisée par l'avion. "C'était terrifiant!".

Les autres habitations sont intactes mais une atmosphère de drame régnait sur ce quartier résidentiel habituellement paisible. A travers les arbres, on pouvait voir la queue de l'appareil, plantée en l'air, et les ailes détachées de la carlingue, a constaté un photographe de l'AFP.

Après avoir été tenus à l'écart des décombres par la chaleur de l'incendie, les secouristes ont pu récupérer les deux boîtes noires de l'appareil. Celle contenant l'enregistrement des conversations dans la cabine de pilotage montre qu'alors que l'avion était descendu à 3.300 mètres (Des pieds SVP !) d'altitude, "l'équipage a évoqué une importante accumulation de glace sur les ailes et le pare-brise", a rapporté Steve Chealander, porte-parole du National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), l'organisme chargé de l'enquête.

L'autre boîte noire, qui contient les paramètres du vol, montre que le bouton de dégivrage était allumé, mais cela ne signifie pas qu'il fonctionnait forcément.

Le pilote a baissé le train d'atterrissage une minute avant la fin de l'enregistrement des données de vol, puis 20 secondes plus tard abaissé les volets des ailes qui servent à freiner l'appareil avant son retour au sol.

Presque immédiatement, l'avion s'est mis à rouler et à tanguer
sévèrement, a ajouté le porte-parole des enquêteurs devant la presse. Le pilote a alors tenté de remonter le train d'atterrissage et les volets de freinage, mais trop tard pour empêcher que l'avion ne s'écrase.

M. Chealander a refusé de se prononcer sur les causes de l'accident.

Beochien
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Beochien le Sam 14 Fév 2009 - 14:10

Bonjour!

Pêché sur A.net
Un cours sur le givrage (tail Icing) courtoisie de la NASA ! en Anglais (Bien parlé en plus !)
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2238323060735779946

Et celle là aussi !
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=3493859021331008391&hl=fr

Béochien

Beochien
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Beochien le Sam 14 Fév 2009 - 17:08

NTSB ! Les Warnings et Re-Warnings ! Surtout sur les Tutboprop !

Du Seattle PI qui va fermer en Mars !
James Wallace dans sa dernière ligne droite !

--------------------- L'Article du Seattle PI -----------------------

James Wallace on Aerospace
Seattle Post-Intelligencer aerospace reporter James Wallace covers the companies, personalities and technologies aiming for the sky.
February 13, 2009

NTSB: Ice formed on crashed commuter plane

Back from a week's ski vacation -- my last time off until the paper closes in March. I'm now here until the end...Hope you are, too.....

With both black boxes in hand, the NTSB has just announced that the Continental Q-400 that crashed last night near Buffalo, killing all 49 passengers and crew plus one person on the ground, was experiencing icing conditions. Just before the plane made a severe pitch and roll, the pilots discussed a "significant" buildup of ice on the wings and windshield, the NTSB said.

There was fog and light snow at the time.

The plane rolled about 20 seconds after the landing gear was extended, the NTSB said.

And just before making the comment about a "significant" buildup of ice on the wings, the crew had placed the de-icing system on the leading edge of the wings to the "ON" position, the FDR indicates

The flight data recorder also shows the crew attempted to raise the gear and flaps moments before the end of the recording.

This crash, and the possibility that ice forming on the wings was the cause, brings to mind the 1994 crash of an American Eagle ATR-72 in Indiana. Ice formed on the wings while it was in a holding pattern for Chicago. The NTSB made recommendations after that crash that the de-icing boots on smaller commuter planes be used more often in icing conditions, but the FAA has never turned that recommendation into a directive. It remains on the safety board's "most-wanted" list for aviation safety.

From that NTSB list:

Reduce Dangers to Aircraft Flying in Icing Conditions

--Use current research on freezing rain and large water droplets to revise the way aircraft are designed and approved for flight in icing conditions.

-- Apply revised icing requirements to currently certificated aircraft.

--Require that airplanes with pneumatic deice boots activate boots as soon as the airplane enters icing conditions.

See this 2008 NTSB warning on icing and the use of the de-icing boots

J'ajoute :
Fact Sheet FAA
http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=10398

Et NTSB Warning (2008) en PDF !
http://www.ntsb.gov/alerts/SA_014.pdf

Béochien

Beochien
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Beochien le Dim 15 Fév 2009 - 18:01

Dernieres infos ... Et la FAA qui s'y reprends pour les avertissements givrage !

FAA Issues Icing Fact Sheet Following Colgan Accident

http://www.aero-news.net/index.cfm?ContentBlockID=05fc105c-d443-42a4-ad20-a6ca49f39ef9&

Extrait ! :

Sun, 15 Feb '09
Agency Says Numerous ADs And SAFOs Increased Air Safety In Recent Years

In the wake of Thursday's crash of Continental Connection flight 3407 into a Buffalo, NY suburb, and in particular the speculation regarding the role icing may have played in the tragedy, the Federal Aviation Administration on Friday released a summary of numerous short-and long-term safety actions it has taken over the past 15 years to improve safety of aircraft that encounter icing conditions on the ground and in flight:

Proposed New Rule Mandates Icing Detection

On April 26, 2007, the FAA proposed a rule to require an effective way to detect ice buildup or let pilots know that icing conditions exist, and produce timely activation of the ice-protection system. It would help avoid accidents and incidents where pilots are either completely unaware of ice accumulation or think the icing is not significant enough to warrant turning on their ice-protection equipment. This rule would mandate that future airplane designs use one of three methods to detect icing and activate the ice-protection system:

1. An ice-detection system that automatically activates or alerts pilots to activate the ice-protection system
2. A definition of visual signs of ice buildup on a specified surface (e.g., windshield wiper post or wings) combined with an advisory system that alerts the pilots to activate the ice-protection system
3. Identification of temperature and moisture conditions conducive to airframe icing that would be used as a cue by pilots to activate the ice-protection system.

The rule would further require that after initial activation of the ice-protection system, the system must operate continuously, automatically turn on and off, or there must be an alert to tell pilots when the system is to be cycled. The comment period closed July 25, 2007. The rule is currently in the final stages of executive review.

---------------------------------------------------------
Et les dernières news, détails, de l'investigation ! Extrait !

http://www.aero-news.net/index.cfm

According to reports from the Rochester Democrat and Chronicle and the Associated Press, spokesman Chealander revealed new information Saturday gleaned from the NTSB's initial investigation:

* Evidence suggests the plane did not dive nose-first into the home in Clarence nose-first as was first believed, but fell in a horizontal attitude. The airplane impacted the ground flat, facing in the opposite direction of the runway at Buffalo Niagara International Airport that it was supposed to be approaching. It is "fair to say" that there was not a lot of forward motion of the aircraft when it crashed because it hit only one house, Chealander said. While the nature of the impact suggests a flat spin,"All we know is that the airplane hit flat," he added.
* Both engines of the Bombardier turboprop plane were found and it appears both were working normally.
* The cockpit and both wings also were recovered.
* Information from the flight data recorder indicates the stick shaker and stick pusher had activated, though there is no evidence yet that the aircraft did in fact stall. He said the systems activated about 30 seconds before the crash, about the same time as the pitching up and down and rolling side to side that had been reported earlier.
* The flight's delay at Newark Liberty International Airport, its starting point, was not due to any problems with the airplane but because of high winds in Newark.
* He praised the more than 150 people working at the scene, particularly volunteer firefighters who have full-time jobs but still are helping. He called the crash scene an "excavation" because the plane fell on the house and the two are intermingled. Workers need to shore up the basement to make recovery safe for workers.
* Some victims' bodies have already been removed, but it will take three to four days to get all of them. The goal is to complete this by Wednesday, when a snowstorm is forecast.
* The tail is intact, but little of the rest of the aircraft is. The NTSB will remove all pieces of the wreckage and take it to a yet-unnamed site.

Béochien!

Rasta'
Modérateur

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Rasta' le Lun 16 Fév 2009 - 16:47

Lu sur Yahoo: L'avion était en pilotage automatique

A lire ici

Beochien
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Beochien le Lun 16 Fév 2009 - 17:21

Merci Rasta,

OUI sous PA jusqu' à 20 secondes de l'accident ... quand ils ont sorti le train ... ils auraient piloté à la main, avant, ils auraient peut être senti venir le coup !

La recommandation, d'aprés ce que j'ai pu comprendre, permets au pilote de sentir bien mieux, manuellement si l'avion se comporte toujours "Normalement"; ce qui n'est pas le cas s'il est affecté par un givrage important, des ailes, partiels ou asymétriques parfois, et surtout de la queue, le plus traître semble t'il !

CF les "Cours de la NASA " que j'ai posté samedi !

art_way
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par art_way le Mer 18 Fév 2009 - 13:28

D'après le WSJ l'erreur serait humaine.


Pilot error may have downed Buffalo flight


NEW YORK, Feb 18, 2009 (AFP)

Investigators of last week's plane crash near Buffalo found evidence
that pilot error -- and not ice build-up -- may have led to the
accident that killed 50 people, The Wall Street Journal reported
Wednesday.

http://www.aerospacemedia.com/site/afp.php?Id=090218121459.ajpf8aeq.xml


_________________
art_way

alain57
Whisky Quebec

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par alain57 le Lun 11 Mai 2009 - 22:02

Captain's Training Faulted In Air Crash That Killed 50

Le texte du Wall Street Journal est ici.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124200193256505099.html

http://blogues.cyberpresse.ca/lapresseaffaires/dufour/?p=2167

C’est survenu la veille d’un vendredi 13 et c’était effectivement rempli d’horreur. Plusieurs hypothèses avaient été soulevées quand un Q400 de Bombardier s’est écrasé sur Buffalo en février dernier.
C’était aussi une tuile de plus sur Bombardier. La réputation de Bombardier se faisait écorcher alors que la récession frappait l’entreprise, alors que la direction venait d’annoncer des mises à pied et alors que l’action pataugeait en Bourse.
Les images du site de l’accident avaient tournées en boucle sur toutes les chaînes télé de nouvelles pendant 24h, en plus de se retrouver sur tous les sites web d’information.
Le Q400 en question avait été assemblé l’année dernière à Toronto par Bombardier. L’appareil n’avait pas un an d’utilisation.
Une enquête avait été ouverte pour tenter de trouver la ou les causes de l’accident.
Aujourd’hui, le Wall Street Journal se base sur des sources près de l’enquête pour affirmer que la formation du pilote serait en cause. Il aurait échoué plusieurs tests de vol au fil des années.

Poncho (Admin)
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Poncho (Admin) le Lun 11 Mai 2009 - 22:30

Merci alain

Je ne sais pas à quel point cet article du WSJ (long et détaillé) est véridique... mais c'est édifiant.


_________________
@avia.poncho

alain57
Whisky Quebec

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par alain57 le Lun 11 Mai 2009 - 23:00

Exact Poncho, j'ai utilisé la semaine dernière un Q400 de luxair,(DHC8-400) a la lecture de cet article j'ai eu froid dans le dos.
mais j'ai toute confiance en la compagnie Luxembourgeoise.

Poncho (Admin)
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Poncho (Admin) le Lun 11 Mai 2009 - 23:01

Je ne pensais pas à l'avion Alain... mais plutôt à la Cie, la FAA...

bonne soirée


_________________
@avia.poncho

alain57
Whisky Quebec

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par alain57 le Mar 12 Mai 2009 - 23:01

Bonsoir Poncho j'avais bien compris.. Wink
cependant on lisant ce rapport, je pensait aux pauvres passagers de ce vol qui a mal fini......

Poncho (Admin)
Whisky Charlie

Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Poncho (Admin) le Dim 14 Fév 2010 - 23:02

Bonsoir,

Un an après

http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story.jsp?id=news/awst/2010/02/08/AW_02_08_2010_p35-201948.xml&headline=Colgan Crash Leading To Pilot Training Overhaul&channel=awst



Critical human-factors safety issues laid bare during the NTSB’s probe of a regional airline crash near Buffalo, N.Y., are mobilizing the aviation community to overhaul the way pilots qualify and train for a seat on the flight deck.

At the final hearing last week on Continental Connection/Colgan Air Flight 3407, the NTSB said pilot error—specifically, the captain’s improper response to stickshaker activation—was the probable cause of the Feb. 12, 2009, accident that killed 50 people.

The board cited both pilots’ failure to monitor airspeed and adhere to the “sterile-cockpit” rule as contributing factors, as well as the captain’s failure to effectively manage the flight and Colgan Air’s inadequate procedures for airspeed selection and management for approaches in icing conditions.

The NTSB issued more than 25 Colgan Air-related safety recommendations. They include requiring training in monitoring skills, professionalism and fatigue management, as well as the installation of redundant airspeed cues on flight instruments (see box below).

In addition, the NTSB is urging that flight operational quality assurance (FOQA) programs be established at all carriers and that operators provide pilots with realistic upset-recovery training in simulators. (For a complete list, go to: http://www.ntsb.gov )

The accident sequence supports NTSB Chairman Debbie Hersman’s description of Flight 3407’s cockpit —“a picture of complacency and confusion that resulted in catastrophe.”

With light snow and light-to-moderate icing expected on the night approach to Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, the captain appropriately set the reference speed switch to “increase” position. This lowered the angle of attack (AOA) reference for stickshaker (stall warning) activation and raised the position of the low-speed cue on the airspeed indicator, explains Investigator-in-Charge Lorenda Ward. The procedure ensures that the Bombardier Dash 8-Q400 would have the same or greater stall-speed margins in icing conditions as long as the landing airspeeds remain above the stall-warning threshold.

However, the first officer obtained the landing airspeeds for non-icing conditions and did not indicate in an electronic message that the aircraft would be in icing conditions. This resulted in setting a landing speed of 118 kt., which was 13 kt below the 131-kt. stickshaker activation speed.

The cockpit voice recorder (CVR) reveals that the two pilots were engaged in non-flight-related conversations from pushback at Newark (N.J.) Liberty International Airport —a violation of the sterile-cockpit rule. This created a flight-deck environment that prevented the crew from quickly detecting errors. “It was as if the flight was just a means for the captain to conduct a conversation with the first officer,” NTSB Member Robert Sumwalt noted.

When the crew noticed ice accumulating on the windshield, the first officer said she had never seen aircraft icing, an indication that she had not received training for winter operations specific to the route.

When the Q400 reached 131 kt. , the stickshaker activated and the autopilot disengaged. The pilot reacted by pulling back on the control column with a 25-lb. force. (Proper recovery from a wing stall requires pushing the column down to lower the nose and gain airspeed.)

His move resulted in increasing the AOA, pitch-up and load factor—and led to an accelerated wing stall. In this sequence, the stickpusher activated three times, a signal to decrease the AOA; however, for reasons undetermined by investigators, each time, the captain pulled back on the column, a response that was inconsistent with training but consistent with a “startle and confusion” reaction, according to the NTSB. And the first officer’s move to raise the flaps and her suggestion to raise the gear were inconsistent with proper recovery procedures.

Meanwhile, the Q400’s airspeed kept decreasing as pitch and roll excursions continued during the aircraft’s final descent.

Ward says performance data indicated that initially the Q400 was not close to an actual stall, since there was only a minimum ice accretion that did not affect the ability of the crew to fly and control the aircraft.

However, the pilots’ “missing [the low-airspeed] cues reflects a breakdown in monitoring and workload management,” according to the NTSB. Investigators determined that the flight instruments provided “explicit” airspeed cues, and the pilots had adequate time to take corrective action. It was the captain’s (pilot flying) primary responsibility to monitor instruments and the first officer’s (pilot monitoring) job to provide backup and corrective input.

The NTSB concluded that both pilots were likely fatigued, due in part to inadequate sleep— a result of long commutes to their Newark base. However, investigators were unable to determine how extensively fatigue affected the pilots’ performance.

What happened in the 26 sec. that elapsed from stickshaker activation until the CVR ended at aircraft impact with the ground raised serious questions about the effectiveness and oversight of pilot training, notes the NTSB.

As the board launched its aggressive probe of Flight 3407 focused on human performance and operational factors, the FAA also responded. Administrator Randy Babbitt launched a “Call to Action on Airline Safety and Pilot Training” initiative, which aims to set one level of safety for regionals and majors, and speed a revision of flight-/duty-time guidelines. A proposed rulemaking is scheduled for publication in the spring instead of December 2009 as initially planned. The agency this week will issue an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that seeks industry input on whether current eligibility, training and qualification requirements for commercial pilot certification are adequate or need improvement.

The accident also led to congressional hearings and the introduction of the Airline Safety and Pilot Training Improvement Act. At a House Aviation subcommittee hearing last week on the progress of the FAA’s plan, Rep. Jerry Costello (D-Ill.) noted that the legislation was introduced out of concern that improvements would take too long to implement in the FAA’s rulemaking process. Among the bill’s many provisions is one specifying that all pilots seeking a Part 121 job—captains as well as first officers—hold an Airline Transport Pilot license to qualify for employment. The ATP requires a minimum of 1,500 hr. of flight time. First officers currently are required to hold a Commercial license, which requires a minimum of 250 hr. (The bill, approved by the House in late 2009, is now before the Senate.)

Hersman addressed concerns about the often glacial pace of rulemaking . While commending Babbitt for “taking a fresh look at the issues,” she said the FAA “has not yet pushed across the finish line,” and urged the agency’s swift acceptance of the recommendations.


Further ahead, the NTSB intends to examine two safety issues that are “bigger than this accident” and that have far-reaching implications for the aviation industry, says Hersman.

In late spring, the NTSB plans a safety forum to explore professional standards for pilots and air traffic controllers. Another forum in late fall will “dig deeper” into the implications of code-sharing partnerships, including whether regionals have the same level of safety as their major partners.

Hersman is not adverse to congressional legislation mandating pilot training improvements. The NTSB would welcome any help it can get to implement its proposals, she adds. “And if it takes Congress to say, ‘Enough talk, and a little more action,’ then that’s what we need.”

Photo Credit: BOMBARDIER

Sampling of NTSB Safety Recommendations to FAA based on Colgan Air Flight 3407 investigation


• Pilot monitoring techniques. Require Part 121, 135 and 91K operators to review and verify that their standard operating procedures are consistent with flight-crew monitoring techniques described in FAA Advisory Circular AC 120-71A.

• Airspeed warning instrumentation. Require operators of aircraft engaged in commercial operations under Parts 121, 135 and 91K to install low-airspeed alert systems that would provide pilots with backup aural and visual warnings of impending, hazardous low airspeeds.

• Airspeed cues. Require that airspeed indicator displays on all aircraft with electronic flight instrument systems and certified under Part 25 depict a yellow/amber cautionary band above the low-speed cue—or that the indicator digits change from white to amber/yellow as airspeed approaches the low-speed cue.

• Pilot leadership, professionalism. Issue an advisory circular providing guidance on leadership training for upgrading captains. Develop and distribute to all pilots multimedia guidance materials about professionalism in aircraft operations. Standards of performance as well as best practices for maintaining the sterile-cockpit rule are among the many topics to be covered in the materials.

• Fatigue-commuting. Require that Part 121, 135 and 91K operators address fatigue risks linked with pilot commutes to base of operations. This would include establishing policy and guidance to mitigate fatigue risks, changing scheduling to minimize the hazard, and developing or identifying rest facilities for commuting pilots.


Source: U.S. National Transportation Safety Board


Cet accident pose la question de la formation des pilotes.
Qui est en cours de révision
Et notamment en ce qui concerne les prérequis pour devenir commandant de bords ou co-pilote

Bonne soirée


_________________
@avia.poncho

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Re: Un Dash 8 Q400 s'écrase dans l'état de New York

Message par Contenu sponsorisé Aujourd'hui à 9:52


    La date/heure actuelle est Sam 10 Déc 2016 - 9:52